Sleep Hygiene

Middle-Aged People Who Sleep Less Than 6 Hours A Night At Greater Risk Of Dementia 

According to a dementia study that used data from 10,000 volunteers, middle-aged people who regularly sleep six hours or less each night are more likely to develop dementia when compared to those in the same age group who get seven or more hours every night. 

The study found that those in their 50s, 60s, and 70s are at a 30% greater risk of developing dementia when they consistently have a short night’s sleep; regardless of other risk factors such as poor mental health, heart conditions, and genetics. 

The study obviously doesn’t work to prove that sleeping too little is a direct cause of dementia, but instead is something to be aware of for those who may be at a risk of developing the disease. Some scientists, however, have long believed that persistent poor sleep contributes to the neurodegenerative disease. 

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Dr Séverine Sabia, an author of the study at the University of Paris, claimed that while we “may not completely know whether improving sleep can reduce the risk of dementia, sleep is in general known to clear toxic waste from the brain. One hypothesis is that when people sleep less, this process becomes impaired. These findings suggest that sleep duration might be a risk factor for dementia in later life. I cannot tell you that sleep duration is a cause of dementia but it may contribute to its development.”

Sabia and the other researchers involved in the study reviewed data from the University College London’s Whitehall II study, which initially launched in 1985. Sabia and her colleagues focused on the 8,000 participants who self-reported their nightly sleep patterns, and throughout the past 25 years of follow up surveys, 521 participants developed dementia. 

Most of the individuals diagnosed were in their 70s, and the scientists described how “those who routinely got six hours of sleep or less each night in their 50s and 60s were 30% more likely to develop dementia than those who typically managed seven hours.”

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Smoking, heavy drinking, and obesity are thought to be the other major controllable risk factors that could lead to one developing dementia. The disease is estimated to affect one in 14 individuals over the age of 65, and one in six people over the age of 80. 

Dr Liz Coulthard, a consultant senior lecturer in dementia neurology at Bristol University, who was not involved in the study, spoke about how the results work to prove long-standing theories about sleep’s relationship to dementia. 

“It strengthens the evidence that poor sleep in middle age could cause or worsen dementia in later life. It makes sense to take measures to improve sleep such as going outside during daylight hours to help maintain the natural rhythms that promote good sleep, avoiding excess alcohol or caffeine, particularly before bed, and finding a bedtime routine that works for you.”

Robert Howard, professor of old age psychiatry at the University College of London, said: “We know that the first signs of Alzheimer’s disease appear in the brain 20 years before detectable cognitive impairment, so it is always possible that poor sleep might be a very early symptom of the condition, rather than a treatable risk factor. Insomniacs – who probably don’t need something else to ruminate about in bed – shouldn’t worry that they are heading for dementia unless they get off to sleep immediately. ”


Link’s Awakening on Nintendo Switch Earns Positive Reviews, With Some Caveats

Reviews for Nintendo’s remake of the 1992 Game Boy classic The Legend of Zelda: Link’s Awakening, which releases tomorrow, September 20th, are finally live. After the date for lifting the review embargo was delayed to just a day before the game’s launch, many were worried about the quality of the game, as publishers tend to prolong review embargoes for games they expect to review poorly. Fans can breathe a sigh of relief, however, as reviews indicate that the new Switch title is a faithful, polished, and immensely enjoyable recreation of the beloved original.

One thing you’ll notice immediately upon booting up the game for the first time is the graphics. While the original game was designed around the limitations of the Game Boy’s black-and-white 160×144 display, the remake takes full advantage of the processing power and high-definition capabilities of the Switch, rendering a beautifully detailed and animated world with a unique new art style reminiscent of plastic toy figures. The game takes advantage of rendering techniques like shallow depth-of field to give the impression of a miniature diorama-style environment, brought to life by smoothly animated enemies, characters, and objects. One of the few complaints reviewers had concerned the game’s performance; during certain segments, the game’s framerate would stutter and lag, temporarily disrupting the player’s sense of immersion. These issues are minor, however, and while nothing has yet been announced it’s possible Nintendo will push out a software update that addresses these concerns.

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Another notable improvement from the original game is found in its soundtrack. While the limited processing power of the Game Boy imposed significant limitations on the score’s instrumentation, the remake features an entirely re-recorded, almost fully-orchestrated collection of songs, which are pleasing to hear even as they are repeated throughout the game. Like the game’s graphics, its reimagined soundtrack breathes new life into the game’s original melodies, highlighting and emphasizing the quality of the composition. Nintendo games are famous for the quality of their music, and Link’s Awakening, featuring compositions from the legendary Kazumi Totaka among others, is no exception.

For the most part, reviewers feel that because the original game was so good, few changes were necessary

The game’s overall design is largely unchanged from the version released 27 years ago, but some changes have been made to meet the game design standards of 2019. While the original game only displayed one screen of the environment at the time due to technological limitations, the remake scrolls smoothly across the environment, helping to make the game world feel more cohesive. While the original game only let the player save their progress in certain locations, players of the remake can save and load their game at any point in the environment, picking up right where they left off. Just as in the original game, the player traverses the environment, collecting tools and abilities, interacting with in-game characters, and solving puzzles to progress and allow an original story to unfold. These gameplay elements are largely unchanged, with the exception of features that take advantage of the Switch’s expanded number of buttons and an enhanced map system, among other minor improvements. For the most part, reviewers feel that because the original game was so good, few changes were necessary, and the fundamental gameplay experience holds up even today. While Patrick Klepek of Vice noticed that elements of the game’s design feel dated, Andrew Webster of The Verge described the game as seeming like a brand-new experience.

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The remake introduces a new feature, called Chamber Dungeons, which allows players to customize the game’s various dungeons, rearranging the order of rooms to create a new experience. While the option of creating your own Zelda dungeons sounds enticing, reviewers felt that this mode did not live up to the hype, and instead proved to be a frustrating and dull affair. Reviewers complained that the level of customizability afforded in this mode was far too restrictive, and the dungeons created in this mode ended up feeling repetitive and overly simplistic. Fortunately, this mode is entirely optional, and players who stick to the game’s main campaign won’t have to miss out on any secrets or bonuses if they choose not to bother with the Chamber Dungeons mode.

It’s worth noting that this is not the first time Link’s Awakening has been remade. In 1998, The Legend of Zelda: Link’s Awakening DX was released for the Game Boy Color, featuring color graphics and an optional ninth dungeon which has been carried over to the Switch release. The fact that the game received such strong reviews after having been remade not just once, but twice after nearly 30 years is a testament to the quality of the core gameplay and a sign that the Switch edition of this cult classic is worth checking out, particularly if you’ve never played any version of the game before.